Facing the challenges and Countermeasures of indus

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Facing industry 4.0, the challenges and Countermeasures of China's industrial enterprises

industry 4.0 is currently a topic of great concern in China's industrial circles. However, China is not Germany after all, and there are huge differences in personnel size, industrial foundation, economic model, and even political system. Therefore, we must analyze the problems existing in China's industrial circles in combination with China's basic situation and future development strategy, And formulate the industrial 4.0 road in line with China's national conditions. At present, there are many problems in China's industrial system, such as economic downturn, meager profits, unreasonable structure, large but not strong, and low product quality. In the face of the attack of industry 4.0, China's industrial enterprises should take industry 4.0 as the benchmark, apply, implement, and meet the standard of industry 4.0. Obviously, there are deficiencies in many aspects. It is worth discussing from which aspects to analyze. In industrial production, people, machines, materials, environment and law are usually spoken. Therefore, the author analyzes the challenges faced by China's industrial enterprises according to these five words

first of all, people. China is a country with a large population. Implementing industry 4.0, it is impossible to realize a large-scale replacement of machines and an unmanned factory like Germany. Instead, it is necessary to realize the integration of human intelligence and machine intelligence, improve people's ideas, knowledge and skills, and make them meet the requirements of industry 4.0. On the other hand, from the perspective of national economic endowment, China's demographic dividend is huge. It operates completely in accordance with the German model. Obviously, it uses its own shortcomings and is better than others. At the 2015 annual meeting of the China Development Forum held in March, Lin Zuoming, chairman of AVIC, said that made in China 2025 faces two major challenges: improving labor quality and reducing labor demand. For example, the author once communicated with a large state-owned enterprise. The person in charge of the enterprise talked about the working mode of workers. With the same drawings and the same process requirements, the screws of export cars can be screwed in place according to the requirements, with the same angle, while domestic cars are screwed in a mess

the second is the machine. Industry 4.0 needs to build intelligent factories, realize the link between people and machines, the link between machines, and the link between machines and objects, and realize the information physical system. However, the common problem in China is that the types and models of equipment are complex, and the maintenance status of equipment is often unsatisfactory. The bigger problem is that the production capacity of equipment is often not brought into play. For example, according to the person in charge of an MES software enterprise, The general equipment utilization rate of military enterprises can reach 20%-30%, while that of enterprises such as Haier mold can reach 80%. In order to achieve industry 4.0, enterprises must realize the informatization, intelligence and networking of machine tool assembly. Obviously, compared with German enterprises, our country has more lessons to make up and the cost is higher

the third is materials. Industrial raw materials in our country include not only production raw materials in the narrow sense, but also raw materials in the broad sense, such as various standard parts, components, components, etc. of industrial production. These industrial raw materials generally have low product quality or unstable quality. On this basis, production enterprises must adjust according to the situation of raw materials, resulting in long production cycle and low product quality. The more serious problem is that China has no supply capacity for a large number of raw materials. Some rely on imports, while some high-end materials, which are available abroad, restrict China's imports. Combined with industry 4.0, such as PLC module and embedded system, the core technology and core components are all in the hands of foreign enterprises

the fourth is the ring, which refers to the environment. When it is upgraded to the industrial field, it can be expanded to the natural environment. In the following information, let's have a detailed understanding of the economic environment and social environment. Relatively speaking, China has a large geographical region, great differences in natural environment, and a large gap between the distribution of mineral resources and the production and consumption regions. In the economic environment, China's industrial structure is still dominated by large state-owned enterprises, with overall overcapacity, great downward pressure on the economy, great differences in economic development between the East and the west, and high-quality products and innovation capabilities need to be improved. In the social environment, young people and college students dislike black, dirty and disorderly, it is difficult to recruit workers in industrial enterprises, there is a lack of high-quality personnel, and the society has low evaluation on the employees of industrial enterprises, which directly affects the quality and efficiency improvement of industrial enterprises

the fifth is the method, which can be analyzed in three levels. The first is the process method closely related to production and manufacturing, which needs to be analyzed in combination with the relevance of products and processes and the maturity of processes. China's process level, especially large and medium-sized enterprises, is still far behind foreign countries, such as the lack of appearance, color, layout, processing accuracy, interchangeability, and compatibility of process equipment, advanced microelectronic processes The application level and proportion of computer technology are low, the promotion speed of advanced technology is slow, and there is a huge imbalance among enterprises. Then, with the general development of personalized customization and small batch customization, the rules and regulations and corporate culture of enterprises need enterprises to improve their management level and innovation ability. However, China is often simple and extensive in this aspect, with insufficient investment. For example, there is a phenomenon of two layers between the quality management system and production implementation. The third is laws and regulations. In combination with industrial production, China's product quality, intellectual property rights and safety protection need to be refined, implemented and implemented. Support for industrial enterprises that meet the national development strategy still needs to be increased, strengthened and deepened

although China has the above problems, we should also look at it from another aspect. After all, China has become a big manufacturing country, and at the same time, China has a huge consumer market. Therefore, for example, in the Internet field, giant enterprises such as Alibaba, Baidu and Tencent can be born. With service-oriented manufacturing and innovative manufacturing, China's industrial system gives full play to its own advantages, overcomes shortcomings, and deeply interprets industry 4.0, We can also achieve success by formulating our own target system of industry 4.0 and building an implementation roadmap of industry 4.0 in combination with national characteristics and the specific situation of enterprises. Specific to industrial enterprises and groups, the author believes that it can be divided into the following five steps

the first is to build intelligent people. Why is intelligence cheap? The competitive strategy adopted by the industrial revolution is no longer mainly cost advantage, but more driven by innovation. The biggest core of innovation is people. Therefore, it is particularly important to improve people's concepts, skills and literacy. In the future, those standard and large-scale jobs will be gradually replaced by robots and automatic execution units, People need more creative work. However, those jobs with large changes, complex products and imperfect processes still need to be completed by people. Combined with specific work, it is necessary to realize the integration and integration of human intelligence and machine intelligence, so as to have a high performance price ratio. In addition, smart organizations are more important, such as the change of employment mechanism, the change of employee income mode, and even the change of employee skill assessment, so as to form another flexible, efficient, high-quality and innovative new-type interconnected organization to drive the development of industrial enterprises

the second is to implement the workshop execution system (MES). In the era of industry 4.0, the author believes that the MES system can rise to the same status as the enterprise operation and management ERP system and the product life cycle management PLM system, which can be said to be a tripartite confrontation. The reason is that the workshop is a manufacturing entity with a certain economic scale, similar to the small and medium-sized enterprises in Germany, and the workshop in China can become an invisible champion in the future, And its core requires the workshop to have a certain degree of professional ability. As the main unit of manufacturing execution, the MES system is used to improve the ability of information physical integration, and the industrial network is used internally to form a strong scale manufacturing capacity similar to the fist. In addition, a large number of cases have also proved that the implementation of MES system can obtain great economic value and improve the manufacturing execution ability and quality assurance ability of enterprises

the third is to implement unit automation and intellectualization. Traditionally, our enterprises and workshops have complicated equipment, so we need to analyze the product types, characteristics and industrial production processes of enterprises in combination with the characteristics of enterprises, establish their changes, implement elimination, transformation, upgrading and new purchase in order, and improve the manufacturing unit. The core is manufacturing equipment, and then the automation of production lines brings confidence and intelligence to extruder enterprises. In addition, it should be noted that in the process of improving production capacity, we should avoid the problems of efficiency and unreliability caused by the blind pursuit of advancement and the purchase of production lines due to acclimatization and insufficient supporting facilities

the fourth is to build a systematic chemical industry network. Compared with the general Internet, the industrial network has great differences, and has higher requirements for the transmission speed, reliability and timeliness of the network. At the same time, safety is also a problem that needs to be paid attention to. After the transformation and upgrading of the above-mentioned manufacturing units, the industrial network transformation can be carried out. Based on the industrial network, the transmission and storage of industrial data are realized on the basis of information collection of raw materials, intermediate products and products and equipment information. In terms of network coverage, a multi-level network system from single equipment to production lines, workshops, enterprises, groups, and even social systems is built

the fifth is to build enterprise big data and cloud computing centers. At present, most large and medium-sized enterprises in China have implemented a large number of information systems, and small and medium-sized enterprises often invest in informatization, such as e-commerce and financial management. In order to achieve the goal of industry 4.0, enterprises need to apply big data with a comprehensive, overall and overall concept, and strengthen the awareness of data application and quantitative management of enterprise personnel, Build enterprise production data framework, realize production data collection, realize data integration, analyze and apply industrial data, realize behavior oriented big data visualization, and finally promote problem solving, enterprise decision-making, prediction and innovation based on big data and cloud computing, improve production efficiency, make full use of resources, and realize green development

in a word, with the advent of industry 4.0, China's industrial enterprises face both challenges and opportunities, but we believe that opportunities outweigh challenges. We believe that with the support of China's major industrial policies and measures, industrial enterprises can face up to the problems and gradually implement the requirements for this kind of plastics according to the road map. The main requirements are: implement, realize transformation and upgrading, improve efficiency, and realize the transformation from a large manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country by 2025

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